NHS Funding and Universal Healthcare

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The National Health Service is funded through three means; general taxation, national insurance contributions, and private fees for a small number of services, including prescriptions and dentistry.  The level of funding to the NHS is set annually by the central government through the Spending Review process.  Where income has dropped in the form of national insurance contributions and private fees, general taxation is used to ensure the NHS receives its…

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The NHS – A Brief Health System Analysis

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Finance The majority of healthcare in the United Kingdom (UK) is delivered by the National Health Service (NHS).  The NHS is a model of universal healthcare based upon the premise of care being free at the point of access.  It is a pooled risk insurance model where funding is collected through taxation.  Taxation is allocated to respective Departments of Health for England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland, who work to…

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Governance and Leadership in the NHS

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Primary medical services in England Primary medical services in England are mostly delivered by self-employed contractors to the NHS.  These contractors provide services under three different types of contracts: the General Medical Services Contract (GMS), the Personal Medical Services Contract (PMS), or the Alternative Provider of Medical Services (APMS) Contract.  GMS and PMS contracts are granted in perpetuity to contractors who must be General Practitioners or in the case of…

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